value? What is the largest silver coin? What are the various pieces of gold coin? What their value in silver? What are the paper bills which are called money? For what is money useful? How much money do you pay for a handful of sugar plumbs? a pencil slate? bible? a pair of shoes? a knife? a hát? cloth of which your clothes are made? school apparatus? how much is paid for a good horse? a cow? a sheep? various articles of provision? a house? a ship? various articles of furniture? paper? pen? ink? books? What reward is paid to a school teacher? a minister? a governor, president and other magistrates? How is the money collected which is paid to our rulers? Pearls,--Are taken from the pearl oyster, which is found in the seas of East India, America, and soine other places. Buttons are made of the pearl oyster shell, which is called mother pearl. Pewter.—A mixture of tin and lead; what is made of pewter? Pens.-Of what are pens made? What was used before quills? Pointed sticks were first used, afterwards a pointed slip of iron or silver which was called stylus; it is thought that the word style applied to writing, was taken from this improvement in pens. Where are quills obtained? Silver.- What is it? Where obtained? What is its comparative value? For what is it used? Steel. -- Iron prepared by fire. Teeth.-The hardest and smoothest bones of the body. They appear within the first year. A larger and more deep rooted set take the place of the first teeth about the seventh year. The last teeth appear at or near the age of twenty-one. How are they removed when diseased? ELEMENTS OF GEOMETRY. What is the use of geometry? It explains the shape of all bodies, and teaches how to measure them. What is first to be learned? The properties, and uses, of the various figures which are used in this science. What can you say of a line? A line has length, but no breadth. It may be made by drawing a pencil across 'a paper. What is a point? A small dot. What is a straight line? That which goes but one way from one end. What is a curved line? That which turns gradually. What are the positions of lines when placed near each other? They are either parallel, perpendicular, or oblique. When are they parallel? When they are everywhere at the same distance from each other. When are they perpendicular? When one line meets the other without inclining either way. What are oblique lines? Those which are not parallel or perpendicular. What is a horizontal line? That which is parallel to the horizon or general surface of the earth. What is a vertical line? That which is perpendicular to the horizon or surface of the earth. Angles. What is an angle? Where two lines meet each other which are not in the same direction. What is a right angle? Where two perpendicular lines meet. What is an acute angle? Where oblique lines meet, which are less open than a right angle. What is an obtuse angle? When the lines which meet are more open than a right angle. Surfaces. What is surface? It is the outside of solids, and has length and breadth, but not thickness. Of what kinds are surfaces? Plane and curved. What is a plane surface? It is that which lies all one way, like one side of a book, or brick. What is a curved surface? It is that which turns different ways; as when I hold an apple, one part of the surface is towards you, and another part towards me. What is circumference? A curved line which surrounds a figure. A single curved line' will surround a figure Perimeter. What is a perimeter? Straight lines which surround a figure. What is the smallest number of straight lines which can enclose a figure? Three. What is a three sided figure called? Triangle. What is an equilateral triangle? When the three sides are of equal length. What is an isosceles? When but two sides are of equal length. What is a scalene? When all the sides are of different lengths. What is a right angle triangle? When a figure has one right angle, and two acute angles. What is an obtuse angled triangle? A figure which has one obtuse and two acute angles. What is an acute angled triangle? A figure which has three acute angles. Quadrilaterals. How many different figures are there which have four sides? Six; a square, an oblong, a rhombus, a rhomboid, a trapezoid, and a trapezium. Which are called parallelograms? The square, the oblong, the rhombus and rhomboid. Why are they so called ? Because they have their opposite sides parallel. What is a square? A four sided figure, which has all its sides and angles equal. What is an oblong? A four sided figure, which has only the opposite sides equal. What is a rhombus? A figure with four equal sides, two of which are perpendicular, and two oblique, and · has two acute, and two obtuse angles. What is a rhomboid? A figure with four sides, which has only its opposite sides and angles equal. What is a trapezoid? A figure with four sides, two of which are parallel, and the other two are not: What is a trapezium? A figure of four sides, and none of them parallel. How are parallelograms measured? The length is multiplied by the breadth. How is a triangle measured? The length is multiplied by half the breadth. Polygons. What are polygons? Figures which have more than four sides. What is a pentagon? A figure which has five sides. What is a hexagon? A figure which has six sides. What is a heptagon? A figure which has seven sides. What is an octagon? A figure which has eight sides. What is a nonagon? A figure which has nine sides. What is a decagon? A figure which has ten sides. How can these figures be measured? By being cut up into triangles; each triangle measured separately, then all added together. These figures are enclosed by straight lines which are called perimeters. Circular Figures. everywhere equally distant from a point within, called the centre. What is the diameter of a circle? A straight line which crosses it through the centre. What is the radius of a circle? A straight line which passes from the centre to the circumference. . What is the art of a circle? A part of the circumference. What is the chord of a circle? A straight line crossing any part of a circle, which does not go through the centre. What is the segment of a circle? The space enclosed by an arc and a chord. What is the sector of a circle? The space enclosed by an arc and two radii. What is an ellipse? A circular figure longer in one direction than the other. What is the longest diameter of an ellipse called? Transverse. What is the shortest diameter called? Conjugate, Solids. What is a solid? It is what has length, breadth and thickness, and is enclosed by a surface; as a brick, an orange. What is a plain solid ? That which is enclosed by a plane surface like a brick. What is a curved solid? That which is enclosed by a curved surface like an orange. What will enclose à curved solid? One curved surface. Parallelopipeds. What are parallelopipeds? Solids enclosed by parallelograms, which have always six sides, or surfaces. What is a cube? A solid having six equal sides which are square. What are right parallelopipeds? When the sides are all squares or oblongs, and the corners right angles. |